Knitting Blog

How to Measure Your Gauge in Knitting

You found the perfect knitting pattern, went to your local yarn store, and picked up all the supplies you needed. Obviously, you’re itching to get started. But hold on there. Did you swatch to test your gauge before you started knitting?

Knit Swatches and Gauge Ruler

Swatching is right up there with finishing seams on my lazy knitter list. I hate doing it. I admit to making many projects without first swatching, but let me tell ya, those projects sometimes didn’t turn out the way they should’ve. That’s dangerous territory when it comes to knitted garments!

Not measuring stitch gauge can lead to sweaters that are too large, bags that are too tiny, and gloves you have to squeeze your fingers into. Ask me how I know.

Craftsy Gauge Guide

FREE Guide! Get Gauge Every Time

Get our full guide to gauge, plus an exclusive gauge worksheet, for FREE!Get the FREE Guide

What is knitting gauge?

Gauge the number of stitches per inch you create on the horizontal, and number of rows per inch on the vertical. Most patterns will tell you the target gauge. You can determine gauge by knitting a small gauge swatch and measuring its dimensions.

Why knit a gauge swatch?

When you swatch, you’re creating a sample fabric to measure the gauge, or how many stitches you’re getting per inch with a certain size needles and yarn.

Gray Knit Gauge Swatch Hanging From Clothes Line

Every knitter is different.

You could give five knitters the same ball of yarn and the same size needles, and some of them would have 6 stitches per inch while others have 9 stitches per inch. It all depends on your tension. That means that five knitters could work the same sweater, and the sweater size would turn out differently for each person.

Let’s say you’re working on a sweater pattern with a gauge of 9 stitches and 12 rows = 4″ with size 13 needles. You don’t swatch, and you knit the sweater with a gauge of 7 stitches and 10 rows per 4 inches. It may seem insignificant, those extra 2 stitches for every 4″ will start to add up as you knit, and when you finish you’ll have a sweater that’s incredibly loose!

Sure, you could knit tighter or looser to meet the gauge. But you wouldn’t want to change the way you naturally knit just to satisfy gauge requirements. Swatch that baby and then alter it to figure out what size needles works best for how you knit.

You’ll learn about the yarn and fabric.

Swatches give you a chance to get familiar with your yarn. Along with gauge, you’ll discover how the yarn feels in your hands and if you enjoy knitting with it.

Knitted swatches will also reveal how the fabric behaves, like whether it’s very stiff or light and drapey, and then you can determine whether it is right for your project. A stiff fabric, for example, would be less desirable for a sweater meant to be loose and airy, but it might be useful for mittens and hats that you might like to be more “wind-proof.” You will also discover the quality of stitch definition in the finished fabric.

For practice!

Swatches are also a good opportunity to practice a stitch pattern that will be used in the full garment, such as cables or lace patterns. Once you have practiced the stitch pattern in swatch form, it will feel much easier and familiar by the time you begin the actual project.

How to knit a gauge swatch

If you’re working from a pattern, the pattern will specify the gauge for you. For example, it could say: 18 stitches and 22 rows = 4″ with size 8 needles. It might also specify a stitch, like: 8 stitches and 10 rows = 4″ over the Cable Pattern.

Follow the recommendations.

To get started, first use the recommended size needles to knit a square. Don’t just cast on the number of stitches your gauge lists. For example, if your gauge is 9 stitches per 4″, don’t just cast on 9 stitches and call it a day. I like to knit extra stitches so that I can take a measurement from the center of my square and get a more accurate count — especially when I’m swatching in stockinette stitch and the edges are rolling up. The same applies to the rows. If your gauge is for 22 rows, knit a dozen extra rows.

Knit the swatch in the stitch the gauge specifies. For example, if the gauge is over stockinette stitch, knit a swatch in stockinette stitch. Sometimes it might be a little more complicated, like a cable pattern or other special stitch. Take this time to not only swatch, but also familiarize yourself with the special stitch so that when you knit the actual project, you’ll know exactly what you’re doing.

Finish the swatch as you’ll finish the project.

After you swatch, bind off. It’s important that your swatch be measured off the needles. Keeping it on the needles can stretch it or bunch it up in places, throwing off the measurement.

If you plan to block your knitting when you’ve finished the project, you should also block your swatch. You might also want to wash it. Otherwise, your measurements could be totally off. You might want to master these finishing techniques first.

Measure gauge in the center.

Grab a measuring tape or ruler. Measure somewhere in the center of the square to get the most accurate measurement possible.

Measuring Stitch Gauge on Knit Gray Swatch

Just as you measure stitches across, you need to measure rows up and down. Both stitches and rows are part of gauge. My result was 9 rows in 4″.

Measuring Row Gauge on Knit Swatch

If your measurements were perfect and met the gauge requirements, it’s time to start the project.

Getting gauge

But what if your gauge was wrong?

Let’s say you were aiming for 9 stitches per inch, but instead you knitted 6 stitches per inch. That means your knitting is a bit looser than the designer’s knitting, so knit another swatch using a smaller needle to tighten up the stitches. Bind off and measure again.

If you have the opposite problem — say you were aiming for 9 stitches per inch and instead had 13 stitches per inch — then you need to go up a needle size to try and make the knitting looser.

Keep swatching and changing your needle size until you’ve reached the correct gauge. You will use those winning needles to knit the entire project.

If changing needle size doesn’t correct your problem, or if your gauge is way off, it may be that the yarn you’ve selected just isn’t right for the project. This free downloadable guide to yarn can help you find the right substitute.

But if you want to use that yarn, you can turn to adjusting the pattern. Look carefully through to determine what number of multiples you need to subtract or add. If the body of your pattern is a five stitch repeat, for example, either add or subtract five stitches.

Measuring gauge for garment swatches

Here’s a useful gauge tip: When you wear a garment, it hangs vertically off your body. So why not measure your swatch based on that? Measuring flat works fine for something like a throw or gloves. But for sweaters and other garments, pin the swatch to a wall or cork board and let gravity take hold, just as it would when you’re wearing the garment. Measures and alter your swatch based on that measurement.

And once you’ve knitted that swatch, don’t rip it out. Save it so you can test how your garment will wash up. If your yarn is washable, throw that swatch into the washing machine and see how it turns out. Did it pill? Did it fade? Better to find out on a little swatch than on your gorgeous new sweater!

Craftsy Gauge Guide

FREE Guide! Get Gauge Every Time

Get our full guide to gauge, plus an exclusive gauge worksheet, for FREE!Get the FREE Guide

Editor’s Note: This post was originally published in May 2013 and was updated in March 2018.



I’m always afraid that I’m going to run out of a yarn at the end of a project if I “waste” too much on a swatch up front. I wish designers would give more precise yardage calculations so I know if I have enough to knit a swatch.


Do designers figure in the gauge swatch in their calculations? I’d love to hear from a designer on this.


I try to always do a swatch if I’m working on an important project.
Just undo your swatch when your done measuring and then reuse the yarn!


I hate swatching and before this have generally refused to do it, but then I made an oversized sweater that was way too small and so I knew I should start but didn’t really know exactly how to do it. Thanks for posting this!

Jodi Labonte

Lots of times my row count is right on but my stitch count is off. If I change needle size everything is effected. What then? And I also agree with Pepper, the price if yarn can be prohibitive to buying an extra skein.


Ashley, thank you very much for the tips!


Thanks for posting.

I never quite know what to do when my gauge is correct in one direction but not the other. Changing needle sizes seems, at best, to correct the direction that was off but at the same time to disrupt the direction that was good to start with. Any suggestions?

Ashley at The Feisty Redhead

Hi, MSQUARED! I handle this situation differently depending on what I’m knitting. If it’s something like a scarf and I achieve the stitch gauge but not the row gauge, I don’t worry about it. If your row gauge is too loose, sometimes you can make up for it by not knitting as many rows. But that only works for a very basic pattern.

Knitty has an interesting article you should read. The author suggests that sometimes changing the way you wrap the yarn can alter the gauge, as well as what type of needles you use (bamboo, steel, etc.) as some needle types can slide yarn on and off more easily. Here’s the link:

Good luck!


Here’s my question: I’m from Florida, love to knit, but most sweaters are just too hot, even in the winter. I signed up for the crazy cardigan craftsy class to learn how to make a raglan sweater. I was stumped right away just trying to substitute the recommended worsted weight with a dk weight. It just did not seem to equate with gauge. My raglan sweater was going to turn out like a tent due to the loose-ness of the stitch/pattern. Do you have any recommendations? The class was very informative and I loved the sweater, but worsted weight is so hot! I guess I’m silly for living at the beach and loving knitting. Thank you for this article! Its a very helpful. I’m an intermediate kbitter and no one really explains gauge that well!

Ashley at The Feisty Redhead

Hi, Freddi. As I mentioned in the article, moving to another weight category can be tricky! Here’s what I would do: instead of moving down to another weight, I’d find a worsted weight yarn that’s made of a warm-weather-friendly fiber like cotton or linen. That way you’ll get the same gauge, but the fiber will be much more comfortable for Florida. Hope that helps!


I am knitting a pattern that calls for two different sizes of needles. I am knitting the swatch as the pattern recommends; however, I need to adjust my needle sizes to make gauge. Should I adjust the second set of needles? The pattern does not require a swatch for the second set of needles and they are used for rib stitches would it make a difference?


Hi Virginia,

I would adjust the second set of needles. The pattern is probably asking you to do that so that the ribbing is nice and tight. And since you had to adjust the first needle size, you’ll also want to adjust the other needle size to make sure it’s balanced properly.


Thanks for this I have played it by ear thus far and have been pretty lucky, but I’m about to knit a blanket. Given the time I will be investing, I want to get it right. Thanks again 🙂

Mary Shaw

Thanks for your article, but it is missing something important: blocking changes gauge, sometimes drastically. So it is important to block your swatch (after writing the first measurements down) and then measure the blocked swatch. Compare the blocked measurement to the unblocked measurement, and – if the designer included blocked measurements – to the pattern gauge measurements. Then you are prepared if your yarn tends to grow magically in a water bath, and your sweater just might turn into a tent. Also, if you are knitting lace, the swatch’s size will change when blocking.


Hi I’m new to knitting could any one tell me what last [12:14:16:18]rows form mean please.many thanks


Usually the numbers are for different sizes you could choose in your pattern. If you’re doing the biggest size, you could read it “last 18 rows form the…” and hopefully that’s not the end of the sentence. For example, last 18 rows form the place pattern, might mean you repeat the last 18 rows listed when it later refers to the lace pattern…


Thank you for the information. Here’s my question. I had to change needles from a size 6 to a size 3 in order to get the correct gauge (per pattern the gauge was 22 stitches in ss size 6 over 4″). Once I determined the size 3 was going to work for my sweater I looked at the pattern. It calls for a size 6 needle and a size 3 needle. So if my size 3 is now my size 6 what other size needle do I use?

Nancy K Damico

If you see that you are getting to the end of your yarn, you can always “frog” the swatch. Just be sure to relax the yarn to unkink it before using it in your project.

I also normally buy one extra skein of yarn o be sure to have enough for the project. After finishing the final item, I keep a portion of the yarn for future repairs. But, you can usually return an unused skein if you purchased too much yarn up front.

I hope this helps.


Hi, thanks for your great explanation!
I am about to cast on for a tank top.
I knit a swatch and my gauge is spot on! Amazing. However, my body is in between two sizes for the tank top. Should I choose the smaller size and use bigger needles, or the bigger size and use smaller needles? I tend to like a tighter gauge, but this top is a very loose and light summer top. On the other hand, it would be nice if it was a tight enough gauge that I don’t have to wear another tank top underneath to hide my bra.

Tari Anne

This might seem like a silly question but a pattern I found doesn’t give any rows for the guage. It’s for a hat. It says 13 stitches = 4″. How do I measure this without knowing how many rows to do first?


I am just going through the same thing but mine says 13 stitches to 2 inches


Can you help?

The pattern I’m using for a child’s beanie calls for size 11 needles with a CO of 48 stitches. The yarn I’d like to use calls for size 8 needles. How many stitches do I need to CO for the size 8 needles?

Thank you.


I have a pattern from Rowan that calls for size 17 needles for most of the sweater and size 11 needles for the rib at the bottom. The gauge calls for “8 sts and 12 rows to 10 cm measured over stocking stitch using US 17 needles.” I did a test swatch and my knit is so loose I had to switch from size 17 to size 13! Does that mean for the size 11 needles I should switch to size 6, or size 8? Why don’t they provide a gauge for both needles?



I have knitted my gauge swatch and my stitch count is perfect but my row count is off. Does this matter and what should I do?

(The pattern says 22 sts and 28 rows per 4″ but I have 22 sts and 30 rows per 4″)


Hi. What I’d like to know, or be sure of, is *what* I’m counting … Which little bumps?


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