Baking Blog

The Science of Cake Baking: 6 Common Baking Pitfalls to Avoid

Decorating cakes is an art, but baking cakes is a science. And it’s true that the science of cake baking can be tricky to master. The pitfalls that can befall the cake maker are many: deflated or shrinking cakes, cakes that are too dry, too wet, or too crumbly.

Many common cake baking issues can be resolved by learning proper basic baking techniquesStill, sometimes a baker does encounter a problem with a cake. Since baking is a science, these common pitfalls typically do have an explanation, and more often than not, an easy solution.

Cartoon of Cupcakes in Operating Room, via CakeSpy for Craftsy

Photos and illustrations via CakeSpy

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Here’s a brief overview of some of the common cake baking problems, and suggestions for how to remedy them.

Baked Cake - The Science of Cake Baking

Problem #1: Cake falls in the center during or after baking

During baking…

Insufficient moisture:

This means that you might not have added enough wet mixture to the ingredients, or (more common) you added too much flour. Be sure to properly measure your flour and to sift it.


A cake may look done, but when you take it out of the oven, the middle sinks and is slightly sticky inside. To ensure doneness, insert a cake tester or skewer in the center of the cake before removing it from the oven. If it comes out mostly clean, you’re done.

You opened the door of the oven early in the baking process:

You shouldn’t open the door of the oven until the cake is more than halfway baked. And even then, it’s problematic if you keep opening the oven door every couple of minutes to check. (It’s tempting, we know!) By opening the oven door, you can interrupt the reactions that are kick-started by heat, which cause a cake to rise correctly.

After baking…

Too much moisture:

If your cake rises rapidly in the oven, has been tested for doneness, but then falls a few minutes after being removed from the oven, it could be a result of too much moisture. This is a common problem in humid conditions, where the flour may pick up excess moisture from the air before it’s added to the mix. Keep flour in an airtight container if you live in humid conditions.

Note: If the cake falls in the center but is completely baked through, you may still be able to use it by leveling the cake to the lowest point.

Inside of a Baked Cake, on Craftsy

Problem #2: Your cake is too coarse or tough in texture


Follow the mixing times specified in the recipe. In general, once the flour is added to your batter, you want to mix the batter only as much as needed to incorporate ingredients and achieve a lump-free texture. Over-mixing can cause the gluten in the flour to overdevelop and give the cake a coarse grain.

Wrong type of flour:

You only had half a cup of cake flour left, so you figured it would be fine to substitute all-purpose or even bread flour. Wrong! The amount of protein in each type of flour can vary quite a bit, making for a very different result. While the coarse grain that bread flour imparts is great for a crusty artisan loaf, it’s not so great for a delicate decorating cake.

See also our guide to the different types of flour for tips on making substitutions.

Unbalanced formula:

Improper measurements can throw off the texture of a cake. Be sure to properly measure all of your ingredients and sift your flour.

Your batter is aged, but not to perfection:

It might seem tempting to prepare a batch of batter and then refrigerate it overnight so you can bake in the morning. But resist the temptation, as this can cause the baked cake to have a coarser texture.

Mixing Cake Batter - The Science of Baking a Cake

Problem #3: The cake looks fine, but is too tender to handle

Incorrect measurements:

If you’ve added too much sugar, shortening or leavening, it could cause your cakes to crumble too easily. Ensure that you measure ingredients correctly. If you added too few eggs, this could also be to blame.


You may not have mixed the ingredients sufficiently to help them hold together. Follow the recipe’s instructions, which should indicate either how long to mix or what texture to look for in the mixing process to tell you the batter is ready.

Problem #4: The cake is cracked on top

The temperature is too high:

Raising the temperature may make a cake bake quicker, but it may not bake correctly, and will bake in an unbalanced way.

Your pan is too small:

Read the recipe to see what size pan is called for. Using a pan that is too small may result in uneven baking.

You’ve added too much leavening:

This can cause the cake to rise too much and affect the overall texture of the cake.

Cake Pans

Problem #5: The cake won’t come out of the pan

The pan wasn’t greased:

A cake pan almost always needs to be greased, unless specifically noted in the recipe.

Even if a pan is greased, some cakes can be difficult to remove:

Lining the bottom and even sides of the pan with parchment paper and dusting it with flour is a huge help in removing cakes from pans.

The pan is dirty:

Are you re-using a pan with multiple batches of cake batter? That’s fine, but wash it out very well. Those small bits of crumb left behind can make the new cake stick to the pan.

Tip: When a cake comes out of the oven, immediately run a sharp knife along the perimeter of the pan to help loosen the sides of the cake. As they cool, it can be more difficult to loosen the sides and you might have flaking.

Problem #6: Sometimes, the equipment is faulty

Sometimes, even if you do everything correctly, a cake can still come out wrong.

A common cause of cakes coming out incorrectly is incorrect oven temperature:

Check your oven with a thermometer every now and again to ensure that when the temperature gauge reads 350 degrees, it really is the case.

Old or insufficient ingredients can also be to blame:

If you can’t even remember when you bought your baking powder, for instance, chances are it’s old. Ingredients can lose their potency with age, so be sure to use fresh, good quality ingredients.

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my baked cake become semi yellow in 10 days(change flour to yellow color)…why as u?


I’ve NEVER kept a cake that long. Firstly, if it’s good, it gets eaten very quickly- and secondly, I’d worry it would be stale after that length of time. Home made baked goods don’t contain the preservatives that store-bought ones do. As to the color, though, perhaps someone else with actual scientific knowledge can answer.

ravi kumar

I am having small cup cakes manufacturing unit, with in 10 days time my cupcakes skin become dried, I am storing in pet Jars. I am unable to find any solution for this problem, please solve my problem.

Ravi Kumar

oluwakemi Olowomeye

Pls help. My cake get burnt and its not done at the bottom, but done at the top. It crumble after few minutes is out of the oven.

Crystala Armagost

Double check your oven temp with a separate thermometer to ensure accuracy. If that looks good make sure the oven rack you are placing the pan on is as close to the center of the oven as possible.

The legend

You have to check if you oven is adjusted the right n put the cake on the middle rack


My cake comes out almost plastic like ontop. And it looks very dense not fluffy. I don’t know what’s wrong. If I pour it to about 3/4 of the pan it stays there. And I measured the baking powder correctly

Crystala Armagost

I would like to see your recipe but I would check the date of your baking powder. If that’s ok make sure you are not over mixing. Just about two minutes is all it should take to mix batter. Last, you can’t wait to put it in the pan and bake it or the baking powder will react and expire in the bowl and the cake will not be able to rise while baking in the oven.


my cakes tastes fine but always crumbling, what could wrong?


Ravi, you may need to wrap your cupcakes with nylon wrapper after the cake get cooled and always make sure the cakes are not stored in places near heat AT ALL.
Plus, be sure you use a good preservative.


I have baked a lot of cakes that have come out good and last for more than a week but recently I noticed my cakes go bad before two days, what could be the problem? And they go bad mostly at the top. The top would have a sour taste and a bad smell while the centre and bottom are good.. I really don’t know what the problem is….please I need help!


If your using dairy for the frosting make sure you refridgerate your cakes. Also make sure you cover your baked goods too. I don’t ever keep mine longer than 5 days or so.


Cake recipes always ask to bake for 40 mins or so. My cakes seem to be done by 15-20 mins but once cooled, they shrink flat. What’s going on?


Help I made 5 white chocolate mud cakes 2 in a 20cm tin which are lovely and three in a 31 cm tin which cooked perfectly and look great from the top but when I turned them over they all have a big hole in the middle, they have all gone up and left a large hole, please help! I have done this loads of times with ordinary chocolate mud cake and never had a problem Thanks


Hi! I’ve just started my own business as cake decorator and recently I’ve just bumped into a problem. got a new stand mixer, and just before we started baking i opened a new batch of flour. but the result was terrible!! the cakes were flat, dry and did not rise as usual. before that, my cakes were, moist, firm not spongy…. double checked the recipe but we had the same result. we are thinking maybe we are over mixing with the new stand mixer, or the flour is not good. what do you think?


I made a sponge with
6 eggs 1 cup of flour 1 cup of sugar 1/2 cup of oil I bested the eggs for 15 minutes added the sugar The oil and folded in the flour and 3 teaspoon of baking 350 for 40 minutes the cake was rising in the oven a just sunken in the middle what when wrong ????


I bake a vanilla cake using the reverse method – done beautifully. lately the cake batter thinned out where it should be a thick beautiful consistency. I have trouble shooted. all ingredients room temp – flours and baking powder fresh and still thinned out – tried various trouble shooting and result was the same thin batter. the only difference I can think of is when I baked the cake it was early spring – then summer hit and that’s when the problem started – could it be weather related? how do I fix it? less liquid?


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